What Does a Circuit Breaker Do?

An essential safety feature in your home, circuit breakers circumnavigate electrical injuries and fires. What does a circuit breaker do? A mystery to most, these electrically-powered marvels detect and stop excess current in its tracks. They typically trip when there is an overloaded or short circuit, cutting off current to the problem line until the issue can be safely addressed. When an appliance or light fixture suddenly goes dead, it is very likely that a circuit breaker has tripped and interrupted the power flowing to the electrical circuit don’t fixed it yourself but contact a electrician Melbourne CBD.

How Does a Circuit Breaker Work?

Your home’s electrical service panel contains a series of lever-operated circuit breakers that control protect the circuits. Each circuit breaker is designed to ‘trip,’ or shut itself off, at predetermined amperage loads, hence the different size breakers in the box. To protect your home and family against fire and electrical injury, if this limit is reached, the act of the breaker tripping opens the circuit and prevents the flow of current to that particular electrical line or circuit.

Most Common Reasons Circuit Breakers Trip:

  • An overloaded circuit, such as a battle of the dueling hair dryers between mother and daughter, or your annual Christmas light show.
  • A short circuit, such as a wiring issue within an appliance that results in excess current being pulled.
  • A ground fault, which typically occurs in high moisture such as the kitchen and bath, and the reason GFCIs are required by current electrical code for your protection.

Where Can I Find Circuit Breakers in My Home?

Circuit breakers are found in your home’s breaker box. Breaker boxes are typically found in the garage, basement, hall, utility or storage rooms. If you’re having difficulty locating your breaker box, look for the electric meter outside your home. This is usually close to your breaker box for safety/distribution. While you’re searching basement or storage areas for your circuit breaker, consider taking the time to turn your storage game up a notch!

How to Reset A Circuit Breaker

If you lose power to an outlet or area of your home, a circuit breaker may have been tripped. Once you find your breaker box, resetting the circuit breaker is easy. Open the door to the breaker box and look for the toggles. (They look like blocky light switches mounted sideways.) Most should be pointing toward the panel center, indicating the ON position. Toggles pointing away from the panel center are OFF. Toggles in an in-between position are the one(s) which have tripped. You must turn the breaker OFF before turning it ON again, or it will not reset.

If it trips again right away, turn it off without resetting it, close the panel door, and consult a professional electrician for investigation/advisement.

Repeat Offender?

If your home has a circuit breaker that repeatedly trips, it is important to understand the reason why to prevent it from happening again, and safeguard against electrical fire and injury. In rare cases, the breaker itself could be damaged, or you may unknowing have a damaged/malfunctioning appliance or problem in the circuit itself, such as too many items on one breaker (otherwise known as circuit overload). Take note if a circuit breaker repeatedly trips, or you see charred breakers, notice a burning smell or see signs of fire, turn off the main breaker to your panel and contact and electrical professional immediately. And when it comes to your breaker box, if you’re are unsure of anything, don’t mess with it. Seek professional guidance.

Frequently tripping breakers tripping you up? Stop flip-flopping around. Ensure the safety of your home and family with the help of Mr. Electric today.

Want more great information? Molly Maid, a Neighborly company, has a great blog about while you’re down in the basement checking out your circuit breaker, consider taking your storage game up a notch!

How does a Circuit Breaker work?

Now since Nasir did let us know that a circuit breaker is used as a safety device in the circuit, as it prevents an excessively large amount of current from flowing into the internal circuitry, let us have a look at the internal working of a circuit breaker with the next part of his tutorial “How does a Circuit Breaker work?”. If you’re dealing with an electrical scare, electrical failures or overloaded circuits, don’t try to fix the problem yourself to be safe call our urgent electrician Melbourne.

In order to understand its functionality completely, a complete detail of its internal structure and working principle is necessary, so that one is fully aware of how it works.

How excessive current builds up in a circuit?

Understanding the working of a circuit breaker is not that a complex task. Since its working is fairly simple, and the function is even simpler to define, so let us start with the basic principle of Ohms Law.

We know that when voltage is given to some circuit, a current is produced in that path. The load to which that current has to be supplied acts as a resistive network and offers some resistance to the current path, to limit the value of the current flowing, so that it can operate safely and do not cause any damage.

Excessive current only flows in certain conditions, when one or more circuit elements fail to work or work improperly, or any of the wire gets damaged and they short circuit the path of the current such that the power wire gets short circuited with the neutral wire and hence the value of resistance decreases and a very large value of current flows through the circuit which can cause damaging or heating up of the equipment or one or more of the circuit elements.

To prevent this larger amount of current from entering the circuit ahead of its path, circuit breakers are used.

How circuit breaker stops this excessive current from flowing?

The working of a circuit breaker is more or less similar to a fuse, as far as the functionality is concerned.

But the difference lies in the fact that a fuse has to be replaced every time a large amount of current tries to flow through it, damaging its internal wire. So here lies the main advantage of a circuit breaker, that it absolutely needs no replacement.

To understand this concept, just consider its internal structure which is somewhat as follows:

It consists of an electromagnet which gets energized or de energized by the passing current. If the current flowing lies within a safe operating range, the electromagnet will not energize and the metallic lever whose one end is attached to the electromagnet and the other to the fixed contact which is further attached to the next path of the circuit, maintains its contact and the current easily flows through the circuit breaker to the external circuitry.

In case the current exceeds the safe operating range and becomes very large due to some fault in the circuit, the electromagnet will get energized and this energy will be sufficient enough to break the contact of the metallic strip from the fixed contact which is attached to the external circuit.

Take note in this way the circuit opens from this point and immediately the current path faces an infinite amount of resistance and is unable to flow ahead.

When the current decreases back, the electromagnet is de energized and the contact is maintained again and the circuit operations safely.

How Artists See

Visual art is all about the artist and his/her interpretation of what he/she sees and is trying to depict. Drawing or painting requires that the artist fool the viewer into thinking that the viewer is seeing a three dimensional object, when in fact, it is a two dimensional representation. One of the most important elements of this is how the artist sees the object. Hiring a storyboard freelance artist is a good idea for small scale projects.

Seeing is three phase exercise for an artist. The first part is how the artist interprets what he/she sees. I studied anthropology when I went to college, and I was amazed to find out that there is a culture in the South Pacific, that can distinguish hundreds of colors of green. And did you know that people who live in the Arctic regions routinely distinguish many more forms of snow than do people who live in say the rest of Canada or the United States?

The reason for these differences is that we as human being are constantly receiving vast quantities of information about our environment from our senses, especially our eyes. For the most part, we create a generalized model of what it is we see, and compare what we are seeing with the model. If what we are seeing, basically matches the model, then we give what we see the label we gave the model, and move on. So people in the South Pacific, who see hundreds of shades of green, do so because it is important to their survival. Their models of the color green are much more sophisticated and varied than ours. The same holds true for people who live in the Arctic and need to be able to distinguish various kinds of snow. Their models of snow are more specific and varied than ours.

This modeling process often creates problems for beginner artists, though. When you ask a beginner, for instance, to draw an eye, you usually get their mental model of an eye. The eye is fairly simple, and has the major elements of an eye, but it really could be anyone’s eye. So, the beginner often draws his mental model of the object rather than the object as he sees it. This is why foreshortening is so difficult for the beginner. The beginner artist knows a leg is so long, and if viewed coming directly at him, the shape of the leg does not really match the mental model of its length, so the beginner is confounded, and tries to draw the leg the way his mental model represents it.

So to overcome drawing the mental model rather than what is in front of the artist, the beginner must learn to concentrate on what he/she is seeing, and not on what he/she thinks they are seeing. This is why beginners are given exercises like contour drawing, to teach them to see what it is they are looking at, and not what they think they are looking at. Of course, contour drawing teaches other skills as well, such as eye hand coordination, and feeling the object you are drawing.

Once phase one is mastered, and the student can reasonably draw the foreshortening, and different angles, mass starts to come more into play. Mass is represented by light and value in a drawing, and correctly addressing this requires an understanding of light sources and how light reflects off of an object. One thing that students usually do when they are first trying to master the concepts of mass, is to draw a smiley face on the paper where the light source is coming from. Once in my student days, I did this beautiful watercolor of a colonial soldier in the snow, only to have my teacher point out that I had the shadows going in two different directions. This was a disappointing lesson that I have never forgotten. Usually the best and easiest way to light a subject is with one light source. This produces less confusing images and stronger shadows, but often times there may be more than one light source, and this is more challenging.

In addition to the main light source, often there is light reflected off of surrounding objects. For instance, a white ball on a table, may have a light value on the side furthest from the light source. This light value would represent light that is being reflected from the table the ball is resting on. As well, the ball will have a very dark area that is furthest from the light source, and a highlight that is closest to the light source. Combine the play of light with the shape of the object, and you have mastered the second phase of seeing.

The third phase of seeing is the most interesting and most fun, but it requires mastery of the first two phases. In the third phase, the artist now creatively adjusts the lines and values to maximize the effect of the drawing. So in this phase, the artist draws what he creatively sees. For instance, the artist may not draw cast shadows if these shadows would confuse the viewer about the shape of the mass depicted. Or the artist may well create more than one light source if that will enhance the image.

Also line can be manipulated to heighten the impact of the image or to indicate mass. For instance, the artist may discontinue a line as it passes over a highlighted area to enhance the highlight, or make a line wide and dark to give a sense of weight.

This final phase is where the artist can ignore the reference and work just on the artwork. The purpose of this phase is to improve the image artistically, even if it starts to move away from the original reference. I remember once doing a portrait, and my friend saying to me that it wasn’t as important that the portrait was a slavish reproduction of the person, as it was that the artwork was as artistically excellent as I could make it. After all he said, the model is never there when the viewer is enjoying the art!

Keeping these phases in mind as you develop your art skills will help you learn one of the most valuable skills an artist possesses, his or her ability to see like an artist.

My name is Jim Genovese and I have a passion for drawing and painting, and like to draw using a variety of mediums. My primary focus is on classical figure and portrait drawing and painting, but I sketch everything I can see, or imagine. I am always asking myself the question “If I am not drawing, what am I doing that is more important?” I teach drawing at a local college. For more information please visit my website at [http://www.CheatedAngelStudio.com] and my blog at http://myartistpath.blogspot.com, or follow me on Twitter (ArtistGenovese).

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Autistic Artists And The Art Business

I’ve been thinking about this one for a while and is a topic which is particularly concerning for me as an artist trying to get my work out there and seen. I am not diagnosed as autistic officially although I do have a great deal of trouble dealing with social situations and meeting new people (quite terrifying and exhausting). My daughter has high functioning autism and a lot of her behaviour is similar to mine, so maybe I’m a high functioning autistic person, maybe not, maybe I’m just crap as talking the talk and being around new people. The problem however is that in the art world there is an expectation that you socialise, you attend art previews, you get to know people, you network and approach galleries and people in the business in order to sell yourself. What if you don’t have those skills due to autism? Is the art business missing out of a huge chunk of untapped creativity because that creativity isn’t good at marketing itself? This is a question that a lot of shy or introverted people have to deal with, but what about the autistic artist? If I’m at a social gathering with lots of new people I find that I have to go for a ‘time out’ walk or sit in a quiet corner after an hour (sometimes earlier). Sensory overload I suppose. The art helps because it ‘gets it out’ as I like to say. It provides hours and hours of focus alone where I can think and become lost in the action of making my picture. It would be nice if others appreciate my work but if they don’t, fine it’s for me primarily anyway. This leads me to another question or problem with the autistic artist making it in the art business. Often artists receive commissions or alter the style of work that they submit to an open exhibition or prize so that they appeal to the judges’ taste. The autistic artist has no concept of pleasing the tastes of another, the art is about what is in their mind and expressing it. That isn’t to say that artists who are not autistic don’t produce art that comes as a true expression of themselves (that is what art is about), it’s that some artists know how to please the audience. Concept artist play an important role in the development of video games.

Another difficulty for the aspiring autistic artist is that they often have a favourite tool to express what is in their mind (although other artists have favourite tools they do seem to mix in other media). My favourite tool is charcoal pencil. I realise that I will have to expand on that so I’ll stretch it to some paintings later this year, however I’m not massively experimental in terms of materials and techniques used such as fabrics, printing etc. Many well known artists seem to have quite a wide repertoire of techniques which I would feel overwhelmed by if I were to incorporate it suddenly in my work. It makes my head spin thinking about it. I attended art college for a year and for the most part hated it because the pressure was on to play around with various media. That isn’t to say it is wrong, of course not, art college is about experimentation. I could probably manage an introduction to printing, learn everything about it, spend hours with it and perfect it and then move on to another technique (but leave the printing out). Lots of techniques introduced in a short space of time is very worrying for myself. I love working out of my comfort zone (that’s where you learn) but I can’t handle lots of new materials being introduced in a short period of time and being expected to work with them. I’m unsure if this is an autistic artist problem or not but I do notice that many autistic artists out there seem to have a favourite form of expression that persists more with their work than I see with other artists.

I think that maybe the expectation of the art business for artists is sometimes very difficult for those with any form of autism (or learning disability). The expectation of networking, socialising, presenting art to galleries, pleasing the audience with commissions may seem easy or even fun to many aspiring artists (or for introverted people they can learn skills to overcome their problems), however the autistic artist will struggle with the ‘small talk’ needed in networking, they will struggle with gauging what people are looking for and they will be oblivious in many instances of art fashions. Are these good or bad things? Maybe bad if you are autistic and trying to make a career in the art business however very good for producing original art (but you might have to accept that you won’t get much notice off the public). There is a significant area of art that has identified the difficulties that I have highlighted above. This is outsider art. Some dislike the term, however it is for ease of simplicity a way of describing the many artists who have a need or necessity to make their art outside the mainstream art business. Some artists have profound learning disabilities, some have mental illness, some just don’t like the mainstream art world, some just want to create their art individually without influence from what is fashionable or what is popular.

For those of you that wish to find out more about outsider art see http://www.scenesbydean.com/

To summarise, the mainstream art world is a scary and difficult place for an aspiring autistic artist. There are many barriers although there are some projects for young adults who wish to get their art seen however this excludes adults over the age of 25. What about them?

To see some examples of my work my blog is http://janesprostonart.blogspot.co.uk/

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How-To Wash Your Car Without Scratching

If you wash your own car, you may notice that fine scratches, swirl marks and spider webbing seem to be attracted to your car’s paint like a magnet. If this is the case, then you need a lesson in proper car washing techniques. The bucket grit guard serves as a washboard, keeping dirt off your wash pad and your vehicle.

Washing your car regularly is to exterior car care as changing your oil is to good engine maintenance. As we used to hear on TV, “You can pay me now or pay me later!” As with the engine, dirt and grime are the enemy of your vehicle’s paint, glass, plastic and polished metal finishes. It causes scratching and it’s a catalyst for corrosion. That means that regular washing is essential, but are you doing it the right way?

The Double-Edge Sword of Car Washing

Car washing can be a double-edged sword. That’s because your average jug-o-car-wash product is more likely to strip your car wax than not, leaving you with a dull, unprotected paint finish. Dish washing detergents, a favorite of many car owners, are even worse. Products like Dawn work great cutting through grease and grime, making them a very effective car wax remover. Sure, your car will be spotless, but it won’t have a bit of protection.

The Importance of a Quality Car Wash Soap

If you’re going to wash your own car, be sure to use a quality car wash shampoo product. Trust me, spending a buck or two extra on a good product is money well spent. You can’t go wrong with Meguiar’s Gold Class Car Wash and Conditioner or Mothers California Gold Car Wash. They are both easy to find at your local auto parts store and they won’t remove your wax protection. Plus, these wash shampoos offer conditioners designed to prevent scratching and maintain the shine.

Cheap Wash Mitts & Household Sponges are a No-No!

If you are already using a quality car wash, and you get swirls and scratches anyway, the problem could be your wash mitt or sponge. Cheap, synthetic wash mitts are bad news, and household sponges are even worse. What your car needs is a high quality wash mitt that holds lots of soapy water and is free-rinsing. I highly recommend a lamb’s wool mitt or one of the big, shaggy microfiber wash mitts. They work great and they don’t scratch, unless you don’t use it correctly.

I can’t tell you how many times I have watched people use their wash mitt, then toss it on the ground while they rinse the car. On the ground the wash mitt picks up dirt and grit like a magnet. Almost as bad is tossing the mitt into the bucket of soapy water where it sinks to the bottom and picks up all of the grit and grime you just washed off. The best solution is to put it across the rim of your wash bucket or use a device called a Grit Guard to keep it off the bottom of the bucket altogether.

Try Using Two Buckets… It Works!

If you are really paranoid about swirl marks and fine scratches (black car owners, listen up), you might want to use the two bucket method. That’s where you have one bucket with your soapy water and a second bucket of clean water for rinsing your wash mitt. This makes your soapy water last longer because you never put your wash mitt into the soap before rinsing it.

The two bucket method has a very practical benefit. Most importantly it keeps dirt and grit out of your soapy water, which keeps it off your car’s paint. It also makes your soapy water and wash suds last longer.

Old Bath Towels for Drying… Never!

After washing, it’s time to dry. A thorough drying off prevents water spots and streaking, but what’s the best towel to use? It isn’t a bath towel, I can tell you that.

Household towels contain polyester threads and backing for durability. Pure cotton is nice and absorbent, but it isn’t strong enough. That’s why bath towels, kitchen towels and beach towels contain polyester. Unfortunately, polyester is stronger that steel and it scratches just like steel wool. If you use household towels to dry your car, they will cause swirl marks.

The old timers used leather chamois. They work great, last a long time, and don’t scratch, but they have to be put through a wringer. A more modern solution is the microfiber drying towel, often called a waffle weave towel. Although these towels are synthetic, they are super absorbent and the cloth fibers are so fine and soft they don’t scratch. You can buy microfiber drying towels at your local auto parts store.

A scratch-free, swirl-free car wash isn’t difficult or a mystery. Use a quality car wash, wash mitt and drying towel and your swirl mark problems will be gone forever.

Discover popular car detailing articles on the Guide to Detailing blog, including more car washing and drying tips that will save you time and money.

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Helpful Ideas For Repairing Your Auto Or Truck

Both methods can be stressful to use, however this article will help make your experience a little easier. From the moment you drive off the forecourt, your new car is vulnerable to the everyday frustrations that the road throws at you that is the reason why you need a car paint protection Brisbane.

Get a good battery charger and be sure it is always in your vehicle. Learn how to find the batter charger.

Never underestimate the value of keeping an emergency kit handy. You should put together a kit that includes the tools you need to change a tire, help you get some extra gas and tire changing tools as well.

You should wash your car to keep the rust away. All cars eventually succumb to rust, but you can delay the process considerably by making sure any salt or chemicals are washed off as soon as possible. Make sure you regularly wax your car so as to protect the paint.

Referrals are a great method for finding an auto mechanic. Ask the people you know and trust who they take their recommendations.You can find out about the quality of service and value that way. People can tell you what kind of experience they had to deal with and whether the person was honest or not.

Go over your automobile’s manual and make sure to mark important pages. You might even find the information you have been encountering.

Keep a record of all the repairs you make on your car is fixed or maintained. If further issues develop later, it is useful to be able to give your mechanic all such records.

Don’t leave valuables in your car when it’s being repaired.Mechanics might have to empty the inside of your vehicle and they aren’t responsible if an item is damaged or missing. Empty the trunk and glove compartment.

If you notice your headlights do not shine as brightly as they used to, you may need to clean them. Use a reputable glass cleaner to get the situation dramatically.

While a lot of shops are trustworthy, you don’t want to be paying too much money for the repairs needed. Search for an auto repair shop that specializes in repairing the make of car. These repair shops can better understand the needed repairs for your vehicle.

Replacing the bulbs on your taillights or headlights yourself can save you do it by yourself. It’s simpler in some vehicles than others, and it’s a lot cheaper than having someone else do it. Ask someone you trust if he can show you how to fix these problems.

Pay attention to the condition of your wiper blades. You may need new blades if the ones you have are streaking or making noises.

The weight of a big key chain. If your keys starts sticking, install new tumblers and use a lighter key chain.

It can be very dangerous to fix your own. Always get someone close at hand to help you in case of emergency. Buy only the highest quality tools that will last and not break easily. This is especially true particularly in the case of the tools needed for changing tires. The jack has to be strong enough to keep the car.That’s why sometimes it’s smart to use a hydraulic jack with approved jack stands that are approved.

There are a few different classifications that determine the quality of parts. New parts are brand new and made solely to a manufacturer’s specifications. Refurbished or rebuilt parts ate those that have been restored to working condition. “Salvage” means that the parts have been used without being improved or repaired.

Even if you think your vehicle just has a minor issue, you should definitely have it looked at. A small problem may grow into a major one if it is left unchecked.

Some unscrupulous body shops replace your tires with even older ones. They profit off of your ignorance. Mark your tires before taking your car to an auto shop. If you find the chalk is missing later on, you’ve been had.

Don’t let a mechanic convince you that an engine flush is a common maintenance visit. This service and it may not something that is typically done during the course of normal maintenance.

A lot of auto repair comes from consistency. Stick with a shop that has gained your trust instead of going to multiple places for work. Different mechanics might tell you something totally unrelated to your problem is wrong. They could also charge different amounts that cause you to pay more for repairs.

Having written proof can help you in the road.

Ask to have your mechanic to give you the old parts when they’re replaced. This can help you feel comfortable that a repair has been performed. This is not important if you get your exhaust system replacement. You should be able to tell if they have a brand new exhaust system.

When you’re getting a car washed, set mats outside and hose them a couple times. Dirt particles can get inside their rubber surfaces and can cause holes. Holes don’t look good and let dirt through.

Find a mechanic who is already familiar with your vehicle. Ask whoever will be responsible for the repairs if they have experience with your particular make and model of vehicle.

Tire wear is something you can avoid if your tires get rotated on a regular rotation. You need to get the tires rotated about every 6000 miles, but it may depend on the model and make of the vehicle. Get yourself good tires if you’re not wanting to be worried about them getting worn very quickly.

Check out your drive axle boots frequently. These are needed to protect drive axle joint. You can inspect this part by turning the wheels of your tires and looking behind them.

Never sign an authorization which lacks a dollar figure. This can make you pay the costs of your mechanic lists. Know exactly what a repair will cost are before signing on the dotted line.

Repairing your vehicle is usually stressful, but you can reduce the stress with this basic approach. Use the advice mentioned above in regards to your auto repairs. The end result is a better car.

Get Back In Gear With This Auto Repair Advice

It is never a wise idea to dive into the complex world of automobile repairs. You will be surprised by how much you learn. Use our easy online form and the choices below to locate a paint protection Brisbane film installer in your area.

Get a reliable battery charger to keep in your car. Learn how to find the points where the battery charger on your car.

Don’t take an emergency kit for granted. This kit should include specific tools for charging your battery, changing your tire, and an empty container that is appropriate for re-fueling your gas tank.

Ask many questions you have at the shop. Preventing issues can save you a great way of money.

If you are unclear about certain things, ask questions until you do. You surely do not want unpleasant surprises when you get your bill.

Referrals can be helpful for finding a great auto mechanic. Ask the people you know and trust who they take their recommendations.You can gain information about price and value that way. People will let you what type of experience they had and if the person was honest.

Test drive your car before paying the auto repair shop.

Make sure that you are receiving OEM parts. These means they are original parts direct from the manufacturer. Generic parts may be cheaper, but they are not as good. What may seem like a cheap option now can cost twice as much as buying OEM in the first place.

Look out for warning signs that repair company. If they give you the runaround or ignore any questions, then they might not be all that you want them to be. You want to be able to trust the person doing your repairs, so don’t fear seeing someone else.

Always think of how to fix your car before trying to get it repaired. You probably already know that certain mechanics sometime engage in dishonesty if they think they can make a larger profit.

Assemble an auto repair kit to keep in the trunk of your car. Your tool kit should have equipment to change a tire. A good lug wrench and jack are essential. You should have a few screwdrivers with various shapes as well as different wrenches like for this kit.

While most mechanics can be trusted, you don’t want to be paying too much money for the repairs needed. Search for trustworthy shops that specializes in repairing the make of vehicle you have. These types of shops will give you the best bang for your car needs.

Speak with friends and family about auto shop recommendations before you pick a shop. Your family and friends may have some good recommendations for you that will make your search much easier. You should still do some research on the person they tell you about. Check online to see if there is other information or reviews at the shop in question.

Be sure that you make a note of your oil often enough. You have to change it regularly get the oil changed to make sure your car running smoothly.If your oil is not changed on a regular basis, your car could stop working much earlier than expected.

Keep in mind that any DIY repairs can be dangerous. Always have somebody nearby to help you just in case there is an emergency. Buy good quality tools that will last. This is especially when you are investing in equipment to change your tire changing equipment. The jack needs to be reliable so you are safe when you go under the car secure above you. This is why it is wise for you to use quality hydraulic jack with stands.

Check your tire pressure whenever you fill up the tank. Look at the tires and make sure they there is nothing embedded in them. Driving around with corrupt tires can be very dangerous.

AAA is an excellent ally to have on your side when you need auto repair. You can often find discounts for repair costs from AAA.

Although mechanics from your dealer are usually expensive, most of the time they offer the best experience.The mechanics at the dealership are trained to work on your particular model of vehicle you have. They have been trained to fix problems common to your car. They must also utilize regular auto repair training throughout the course of their skills up to date.

Set cash limits on what car work can be done without your authorization.Don’t let the shop to make any repairs as they want after your drop off your car. Set a dollar amount that they don’t call you by phone first.

Always ask questions when dealing with a mechanic. How much time will he need to repair take? What is the work is being done? How much will it cost of the parts? Ask about anything else that you can think of.

Don’t put water in the windshield washer fluid goes. Water is going to be able to clean off your windshield, sure, you could damage it.You need to check this on a regular basis for refill it regularly. Do not insist when the compartment is empty.

Do not try to repair your car unless you have experience doing it. You could end up voiding your warranty by doing the work yourself. This also means you are financially responsible for all repairs associated with your vehicle.

Tire wear is something you can avoid if your tires get rotated on a regular rotation. You should have your tires rotated every 6000 miles, but that depends on the type of vehicle you have. Get yourself good tires to avoid them having trouble with wear.

Take your mechanic for a short drive to show him work on your car’s problem. This allows him to see what kinds of problems your car is having. This is a clearer way to illustrate the issue instead of just hearing about it.

Use the tips here the next time you need auto repairs. Never let a lack of information scare you or cause you to spend unnecessary amounts of money. Take charge of your auto issues, and you’ll make wise decisions going forward.

724 Food Rescue Launches at FarmAid

Pittsburgh, PA / September 5, 2017: Since the launch of 412 Food Rescue, nearly 2 million pounds of good food has been saved from going to waste in Allegheny County and instead distributed to communities in need. Now 412 Food Rescue is bringing these efforts to Beaver, Butler, Westmoreland, Fayette and Washington counties with the launch of 724 Food Rescue. Cater Sydney dishes up gourmet meals made from local, organic, and freshly sourced products to create innovative & delicious menus.
“We received so many calls from people asking us to expand the service to the 724 area, calls from people wanting to help, calls from people needing help, and calls from donors wanting to help their communities,” says Leah Lizarondo, 412 Food Rescue co-founder and CEO. “This effort is possible because of our partners who saw our impact in Allegheny County and stepped up to make it happen in their county.”

Food waste is a global problem impacting both the environment. Globally (and domestically) 40% of food produced goes to waste. That is enough to end world hunger four times over. 412 Food Rescue is the only food recovery organization in South Western PA solely focused on recovering food before it’s wasted as a solution to hunger.
The program, launching in September, will kick off with a rescue from Farm Aid occurring at KeyBank Pavilion on September 16th.

“Farmers put hard work into growing the quality food that will be served at Farm Aid 2017, and it’s far too precious to be wasted. Everyone, everywhere deserves healthful food,” said Farm Aid associate director Glenda Yoder. “We are proud to partner with 412—and now 724–Food Rescue, which brilliantly combines the power of technology and community to efficiently deliver good food and eliminate food waste.”

Food rescued from the event will be distributed in Washington County at the Burgettstown Apartments, in partnership with American HealthCare Group–an organization that provides Supportive Services in affordable housing communities for both families and seniors.

“When we launched 412 Food Rescue, the housing authorities that we work with were a key partner in expanding the safety net for those in need,” noted Erin Hart, 412 Food Rescue founding board member and American Healthcare Group Director. “They’ve been able to end food emergency calls in the Housing Authority of the City of Pittsburgh, we’d like to see that replicated across the region.”

With a focus on prevention and creating healthy lifestyles, American HealthCare Group’s service coordinators partner with 412 Food Rescue, and now 724 Food Rescue, to distribute fresh, healthy food in the communities they serve. “We couldn’t have asked for a better partner. Their mission to enhance the quality of life through health and preventative services dovetails perfectly with our goal to provide healthy food for all,” added Lizarondo.

Michael L. Washowich, Executive Director of the Westmoreland County Housing Authority, a founding non-profit partner for 724 Food rescue, noted that “Many of our residents, both families and elderly, know true hunger and do without adequate food for portions of each month. With 724 Food Rescue’s generous donors and volunteers, that can change; and we are grateful.”

The response from donors has been enthusiastic as well. Four donors, Giant Eagle, Sysco Foods, Aldo Foods and Waypoint Foods have agreed to regular donations of surplus food to anchor the 724 Food Rescue kick off.
“We are so excited to help launch 724 Food Rescue” noted Marta Napoleon from the family-owned food distributor Aldo’s Frozen Foods in Aliquippa. “Their model of distributing perishable food into the communities that need it makes so much sense and we are proud to work with them. The last thing we want is to see good food go to waste. It makes us incredibly happy to be part of bringing this project to Butler and Beaver County.”

To date, 412 Food Rescue has redirected over 1.8 million pounds of perfectly good food from going to landfills. The organization works with over 250 food retailers, 300 nonprofit partners and over 1500 volunteers. 724 Food Rescue which will pilot with 8 donor locations and 10 nonprofit partners will serve the estimated 122,000+ food insecure individuals in the 5 county area. 412 Food Rescue launched in 2015 with support from individuals and organizations led by The Henry L. Hillman Foundation, The Pittsburgh Foundation, The Heinz Endowments, and BNY Mellon Foundation.

About 412 Food Rescue

412 Food Rescue launched in 2015 to address the disconnect between the fact that 40 percent of food produced in the United States is wasted while one in seven go hungry. Utilizing technology to solve the logistics challenge of retail food recovery, 412 Food Rescue is the only organization in the Southwestern PA region that focuses on food that would otherwise be discarded, impacting not only hunger but also the environment. 412 Food Rescue’s goal is to introduce innovative solutions to eradicate food waste in the region and expand its model to cities around the country. To date, 412 Food Rescue has redirected over 1.8 million pounds of perfectly good food from going to landfills. The organization works with over 250 food retailers, 300 nonprofit partners and over 1500 volunteer drivers, our Food Rescue Heroes.

About Farm Aid

Farm Aid’s mission is to build a vibrant, family farm-centered system of agriculture in America. Farm Aid artists and board members Willie Nelson, Neil Young, John Mellencamp and Dave Matthews host an annual festival to raise funds to support Farm Aid’s work with family farmers and to inspire people to choose family farm food. For more than 30 years, Farm Aid, with the support of the artists who contribute their performances each year, has raised more than $50 million to support programs that help farmers thrive, expand the reach of the Good Food Movement, take action to change the dominant system of industrial agriculture and promote food from family farms.

About American Healthcare Group

American HealthCare Group brings preventative services and on-site health programming into schools, employer groups, and affordable housing locations across Pennsylvania and nationally. Based in Pittsburgh, PA AHG has been a part of the region’s healthcare industry for close to 40 years, guided by the mantra: “The Future of Healthcare is Ours to Create.” Bringing preventive services to schools, affordable housing, communities and employer groups makes up the core of their services. Their Supportive Services Programming fulfills the role of health, wellness and social services coordinator for agencies and facility owners involved in the oversight of public housing. Because of these initiatives, American HealthCare Group has branched into designing two dynamic programs, Pathways to SmartCare Employee Wellness Program and Farm to Table Pittsburgh.

Swissvax Crystal Rock

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Paul Dalton has handled more supercars than your average A-list celebrity and received only slightly fewer column inches in the press. He is recognised around the world for his skill in preparing and protecting the paintwork of the world’s most cherished motor cars.

With 76% by wax volume of pure Brazilian ivory carnauba wax, the waxes have one of the highest Carnauba content of any wax on the market. In effect, it coats a car’s paintwork in a smooth and glossy, yet tough and protective, water-repellent film – and even brings a shine to white and silver. A layer of ‘Paul Dalton’s Crystal Rock Wax’ can last up to 6 to12 months and can be “topped up” with additional layers for even more protection. When exposed to water, ‘Paul Dalton’s Crystal Rock Wax’ swells and closes its pores.

This leads to the beading and sheeting of water that is characteristic of a car that has been treated with this high content Carnauba wax. The more layers are applied, the more waterproof it is. After three layers, one of Paul’s clients has been known to dry his car with a two mile drive caring for your car doesn’t get any better.

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Perfect preparation is the key to the world famous Swissvax finish. The waxes come in a satin pouch with a certificate personally signed by Paul himself.

Concours-wax with over 76% Vol.

Paul Dalton has handled more supercars than your average A-list celebrity and received only slightly fewer column inches in the press. He is recognised around the world for his skill in preparing and protecting the paintwork of the world’s most cherished motor cars.

With 76% by wax volume of pure Brazilian ivory carnauba wax, the waxes have one of the highest Carnauba content of any wax on the market. In effect, it coats a car’s paintwork in a smooth and glossy, yet tough and protective, water-repellent film – and even brings a shine to white and silver. A layer of ‘Paul Dalton’s Crystal Rock Wax’ can last up to 6 to12 months and can be “topped up” with additional layers for even more protection. When exposed to water, ‘Paul Dalton’s Crystal Rock Wax’ swells and closes its pores.

This leads to the beading and sheeting of water that is characteristic of a car that has been treated with this high content Carnauba wax. The more layers are applied, the more waterproof it is. After three layers, one of Paul’s clients has been known to dry his car with a two mile drive caring for your car doesn’t get any better.

No wonder some of the most valuable automobiles in the world are protected with Swissvax Crystal Rock, e.g. the Bugatti Royale of the National Automobile Museum in Mulhouse, France.

Perfect preparation is the key to the world famous Swissvax finish. The waxes come in a satin pouch with a certificate personally signed by Paul himself.

How to Build a Storyboard

A storyboard is the most often used tool for getting a sense of how an idea will work before putting it down on tape. This article will guide you through the process of storyboard creation, and help you visualize your videos before you press the record button. Once a concept artist done written a script for a film or animation, the next step is to make a storyboard.

Hitchcock is “notorious” for having done it. Spielberg has been known to hire armies of artists to do it. Now, thanks to new technologies, even the most basic videomaker can make use of it. If you don’t do it, in fact, you could be opening yourself up to problems you might not otherwise have.

We’re talking, of course, about visualizing your video project before you shoot. You might have heard of it by another name: storyboarding.

A storyboard is the most often used tool for getting a sense of how an idea will work before putting it down on tape. It involves, simply, drawing a still image of what a final shot might look like. Storyboards consist of a series of images, much like the panels of a comic strip, that give you an idea of how to compose different scenes. Perhaps more importantly, they illustrate how these scenes might (or might not) fit together once you begin editing.

But storyboards aren’t the only method of preproduction visualization. Some people use models, dolls or maps. And with the explosion in desktop video technology, several programs are available that allow you to do this on your computer.

So maybe you’re asking, “Why do I need to go to all that trouble?” The simple answer is: to save yourself more trouble. Visualizing your ideas before you shoot allows you, by yourself, on your own time, to get an idea of what will and what won’t work. True, this won’t solve everything, but it can go a long way toward giving your production a professional finish.
The Greats

As mentioned above, Hitchcock was well known for storyboarding every shot in his films. In fact, he was so meticulous about it that he considered that phase of the production–drawing the storyboards–to be the actual process of making the film. For him, shooting the film was just a necessary evil; the making of the storyboards was where most of the creative work took place. The storyboard not only determined exactly what the shot would look like; it even decided what kind of lens to use. Production for Hitchcock, then, was simly a matter of creating live versions of the storyboards he’d already made.

Who can forget the shower scene from Psycho, its every shot communicating new terror? Or the plane chasing Cary Grant in North by Northwest? If Hitchcock had decided how to shoot either of these sequences on the location, there’s little doubt they wouldn’t have come out as well–as slick, as carefully put together.

But how can drawing a few storyboards have such an effect on the final outcome of a film or video? The main reason is time. Storyboarding is done before your video ever shows up on tape. Rather than spending time with your fully charged and powered up camera in your hand trying to decide what and how to shoot your video, you sit in a room by yourself and go over the script in detail. In essence, you pretend you’re shooting the video and you draw each shot as you go. You can then review these drawings in sequence to make sure everything will go together the way you think it will. If it doesn’t, its best to know this beforehand. That way, you can make changes before you shoot, sometimes eliminating the need for re-shooting.

Another potential method is the use of models. During the production of Raiders of the Lost Ark, for instance, director Steven Spielberg used a model of the Nazi airfield in order to plan the sequence where Indiana Jones fights under the flying wing.

If you’ll recall, that sequence involved Marion (Karen Allen) trapped in the plane while Jones (Harrison Ford) fought the mechanic under the plane while it rotated and then a truck of soldiers pulled up and started shooting machine guns while the gas cans got knocked over and the fuel ran toward the truck and Marion fired a machine gun from the plane and Jones knocked the mechanic under the prop and then–Whew!

Now imagine trying to explain in words a sequence as logistically complicated as this one. Enter the model. With almost no effort, Spielberg was able to show his cast and crew exactly what he wanted. “The plane turns this way,” and “The truck comes in this way.” The results are clear: the sequence stands as a masterpiece of modern pop cinema.

Okay, so you might not have plans to build a scale model of every shot you want to get. Even so, it might help you to lay out your more complicated scenes using some kind of model. Maybe a shoe box could represent your house, and a couple of matchsticks could stand in for your family…you get the idea.

Remember, the main idea behind any form of preproduction visualization is to be prepared. True, this means a lot of planning beforehand, but it can potentially save time and money later.

For Example

Before we get into actual use, it’s probably best to begin with two exercises designed to give you some practical insight into how this whole process works.

For the first exercise, you’ll need a storyboard template. Storyboards used for Hollywood movies are large–usually only one image to an 8 1/2 by 11 piece of paper. But remember, they also have professional artists who do nothing but create storyboards for the movie. If you want to make them that large, by all means, do so. It’s all a matter of how much time and effort you want to put into it.

Because that size is probably a little larger than most people will find practical, we’ve included a storyboard template here for you to copy. It’s probably a good idea to take it out and make plenty of copies now. You’ll need at least one before you continue.

Now get a videotape copy of your favorite movie and put it into a VCR with a good still frame and a remote control. Sit down in front of the TV with a pencil and a copy of your storyboard template.

Now find your favorite scene in that movie, but don’t try one that’s too long. No more than a few minutes is best to start with. It may very well surprise you to see how many shots (or edits) there are in such a small space of film. Just to give you an idea: the shower sequence from Psycho has 52 shots in a span that lasts only two minutes and eight seconds.

So you’ve picked your sequence. Now freeze the frame on the first shot of the sequence and draw a still representation of that image.

“But wait!” you say, “What if the shot is a long pan of the Manhattan skyline finally settling in on a closeup of a man’s face? I can’t draw one picture that says all of that!” You’re right. That’s why there are two methods for indicating motion in storyboards.

The first is to use an arrow to indicate the motion the camera will take. Using the arrow can eliminate the need for a second drawing. In figure 2, for example, we start with a medium shot of a woman and then dolly in to a closeup. This storyboard depicts the opening medium shot; the arrow indicates what the shot will do.

The second method is to use a series of drawings for a single shot. Figure 3 shows the long pan of the Manhattan skyline. Notice how the opening of the shot comes first. An arrow again indicates the direction of the pan. In the second panel, another key phase of the shot appears, another arrow and finally, in the third panel, the final part of the shot. By connecting these and using careful description under each storyboard, you can effectively communicate the shot while using only still images.

So you’re ready to continue. Let the tape roll again until the next shot appears. Freeze frame. Now draw another picture. Continue until you get to the end of your sequence.

For our example here, we’ve recreated the first few shots from Psycho’s famous shower sequence.

Remember, storyboards don’t have to be full of detail. Look at these simple stick figures; though theyre not very detailed, they effectively communicate the way the shot will look. And that’s the idea.

The second exercise is far simpler. It involves getting your hands on the closest thing to printed storyboards that are out there: comic books. Not only can reading comic books give you ideas about composition, they can give you ideas about new ways to communicate motion or action, and ways to draw as well.
Trying It Out

So now you’re ready to try storyboarding one of your own projects. Let’s pretend you’re making a short video (perhaps four minutes in length) called Boy Loses Girl. The story is simple, involving a man getting a call from his girlfriend, leaving his apartment to drive to his girlfriend’s house, talking to her and then leaving the city.

Take your script and read the opening scene. Now close your eyes and think about the way it ought to play on screen. What should be the first image the audience sees? Perhaps you want to open with a wide shot of the house. Maybe you think an extreme close up of the telephone will be better. Both of these shots are different; both communicate different things. But drawing them first and then looking at them in series can only help you see which one you like best. And that also saves you time when youre shooting.

If you’ve decided to go with the closeup of the telephone, then you don’t need to shoot the exterior of the house. And vice-versa. It also saves time in editing because when it comes time to put it all together, you already know exactly how to arrange the shots. Of course, this isn’t to say things won’t or can’t change. But the value of storyboarding is enormous nonetheless.

Continue with this procedure until you’ve storyboarded your whole script. Now look at your drawings. Yes, that’s the way you want your video to look. Now it’s time to ask the question: is it possible?

In order to determine that, check each shot against the location to make sure. In the case of this project, you have three essential locations. If you’re like most low-budget videomakers, chances are you’re going to use your house or apartment for location number one, a friend’s house or apartment for location number two and your own town limits for the final location.

If, for example, you’re planning a wide shot inside your friend’s apartment and it’s a studio, chances are you won’t be able to make it work unless you have a wide-angle lens. Answering this question is yet another way storyboards can help you.

Remember, storyboards allow you to shoot the video before you shoot the video.
Newfangled Ways

The procedure described above is, of course, the old-fashioned way. And if you don’t like to draw–not even stick figures–then thanks to advances in desktop video technology, you don’t have to. Now there are computer-based ways to create storyboards.

ShowScape, produced by Lake Compuframes, combines a script-writing program with a feature that allows the importation of graphics for use as storyboards. It prints these in a side-by-side format–that is, the storyboard panels are on one half of the page while space for descriptive text is on the other half. ShowScape also sells the storyboard forms ready to use in a computer printer with instructions for formatting. ShowScape is available in DOS, Windows or Mac formats.

A similar package is available from Morley and Associates. Called Scriptwriting Tools, this program’s primary use is for script formatting. (Depending on what the script is for, it must follow a certain format. This means that scripts for documentaries are written a certain way, different from those written for television, the movies, or radio programs.) One of the formats Scriptwriting Tools will produce, however, is for storyboards. This allows you to create illustrations on the Mac or import graphics from other files and plug them into a template with three boxes for drawings per page.

Finally, there is PowerProduction Softwares Storyboard Quick, the only package of these three devoted solely to producing storyboards. Using pre-drawn characters and props, you point and click to drag these items into a storyboard frame. The program then allows you to resize items, reverse their direction or create new shot sizes (e.g. long shot, medium shot, closeup). Multiple storyboard formats are available in a variety of frame numbers per page, as well as a variety of aspect ratios. What’s more, you can import scanned images and video captures into the program for use as a backdrop. This means you can take a photo of your location and actually pull it into the computer to use as the background for the storyboards you create.
Not Just Fiction

“This is all well and good,” you say, “but what if I don’t make fictional videos?” The simple answer is: it doesn’t matter. Any kind of video can benefit from the kind of planning that storyboarding provides.

So you’re shooting a wedding video? It’s true, technically you don’t have a script. But in a sense you do. Traditional weddings, at least, follow a fairly set format. Create a simple outline of the service as it’s planned, then think about how to shoot it and storyboard as explained above.

As was the case with Boy Loses Girl, imagine what the first image the audience sees will be. A wide shot of the church? A tight closeup of the groom’s trembling hand? Again, each of these shots is different and communicates different things. Plan the whole shoot this way. Will you shoot the exchange of vows in a two shot (with both bride and groom in the frame)? Or will you intercut closeups of both the bride and the groom? Will you include shots of the presiding clergy member or justice of the peace?

By drawing each shot out, you’ll have a much better idea of what goes together and what doesn’t. What’s more, you can present your plan for shooting the wedding to the bride and groom. Instead of just describing the images, now you’ll be able to assure them they’re getting the best product possible by showing them your ideas.

How about when you shoot your daughter’s birthday only for your familys enjoyment? Storyboarding still serves a purpose by helping you plan what to shoot. And by shooting what you’ve planned, you’ll know that you’ve shot everything you need. Shooting according to your storyboard plan can also prevent needless overshooting. Why shoot five minutes of each present when you’ve planned it so you only need one shot of the whole pile?

Wrapping It Up

Storyboarding, whether you do it by drawing the shots out or working with models, is an effective and easy-to-use tool.

By investing time up front, you can potentially save time and money later. What’s more, by presenting a carefully thought-out plan to those with whom you’re working, your final product will come out looking more polished and professional.

And that alone is worth the investment.